Vol. 4, Issue 2 (2015)
Bread (composite flour) formulation and study of its nutritive, phytochemical and functional properties
Author(s): Supriya Mohan Bhatt, Rajinder K Gupta
Abstract: Grains are a rich source of nutrition and phytochemical compounds which make them a good source of antioxidants. These phytochemicals have potential impact on human health. The present study deals with formulating medium strength, refined and whole wheat flour using sorghum, buckwheat, chickpea, sprouted wheat and sprouted barley and screening their enriched nutritional and phytochemical profile. Four different formulations were prepared with composite multigrain mix flour. Out of which two composite formulations were opted for further analysis. Additional flours were taken to improve bread’s crumb structure (corn and defatted soy flour). Nutritional analysis indicates better nutritive profile having more protein, fiber with low fat, moderate carbohydrate value and high mineral contents. Besides nutritive value, phytochemical analysis also revealed composites flours and products to be a good source of phenolics (11.8-17.87 µg GAE/ mg sample), flavonoids (21.6-106.4 µg QE/ mg sample), and antioxidant. Comparative study for evaluating the effect of high baking temperature (200 ℃), extraction of the final accepted bread was also performed and phytochemical analysis was done on them. The study revealed that not all phenolics and flavonoids are heat sensitive. Chromatography techniques like HPLC and GC-MS was also performed on raw composite flour and on bread extract. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoid compounds like rutin, quercetin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid. GC-MS analysis shows the presence of hexadecanoic acid, vitamin E, stigmasterol and many other secondary metabolite compounds which contributes to high antioxidant potential and other significant therapeutic uses, in both the composite extracts. The effects of composite flours on physical dough properties and bread structure were studied. The bread loaves have been produced using the straight dough method. Physiochemical and physical characteristics of the bread like loaf height, loaf volume, loaf weight and baking loss were also estimated.
How to cite this article:
Supriya Mohan Bhatt, Rajinder K Gupta. Bread (composite flour) formulation and study of its nutritive, phytochemical and functional properties. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2015; 4(2): 254-268.