Vol. 5, Issue 3 (2016)
Pharmacognostic evaluation of the root Cassia sieberiana D C: A promising ethnomedicinal plant
Author(s): H Bello, Z Mohammed and UA Katsayal
Abstract: Cassia sieberiana D.C. (Fabaceae) though widely used in traditional medicine as an analgesic in dysmenorrhoea, ulcer and general body pains; there is no published report on it standardization. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the root will therefore assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification of the plant drug. Evaluation of fresh and powdered root of this plant was carried out to determine its pharmacognostical profile, including macroscopic, microscopic, histochemical and quantitative parameters. Chemical profile of the root was also determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The root was found to be cylindrical in shape, brown in colour, with characteristics odour and very bitter taste when chewed. When the root was cut transversely it revealed the presence of cork cells, narrow cortex, beneath which is a layer of parenchyma cells, prominent vessels, biserate medullary rays and small pith. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignified cell wall were present. Calcium oxalate crystals are prisms in shape, measuring 19.29 ± 1.4 µm. Starch grains are oval in shape measuring 10.64 ± 0.82 µm. Moisture content was found to be 6.2 ± 0.3 (%w/w), total ash was 5.8 ± 0.43 (%w/w), acid-insoluble ash was 1.0 ± 0.24 (%w/w), water-soluble ash was 3.5 ± 0.24 (%w/w), alcohol soluble extractive was 12.0 ± 0.47 (%w/w), water soluble extractive was 6.0 ± 0.47 (%w/w), Swelling index was 3.5 ± 0.00 (%w/w), foaming index was less than 100, tannins content, was 39 (%w/w), Bitterness value, was 8400 unit/g. Phytochemical constituents include anthraquinones, flavonoid, saponins, steroid/terpenoids, tannins, and cardiac glycoside. These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards and preparation of monograph of the root of C. sieberiana.
How to cite this article:
H Bello, Z Mohammed, UA Katsayal. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the root Cassia sieberiana D C: A promising ethnomedicinal plant. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2016;5(3):270-275.