Vol. 10, Issue 1 (2021)
Phytochemical and anti-snake venom characteristics of the leaves extract of Hibiscus radiatus
Author(s): Isaac Enemali Shaibu and Simon Koma Okwute
Abstract: The leaves of Hibiscus radiatus are traditionally used as a remedy for the treatment of snake bike, inflammation and related disorders in the form of decoction by the Auta tribal community in Wamba, Nassarawa state, Nigeria. This study was designed to investigate the anti-snake potency against Naja naja snake species, anti-bacterial activity and anti-inflammatory potential of the crude methanol leaf extract. The crude methanol extract was subjected to phytochemical screening which revealed the strong presence of phenols, tannins, gums and mucillages, and alkaloids, but moderate presence of sterols, terpenoids, saponins, amino acids, flavonoids and carbohydrates. Fixed oils and fats were however not observed. The crude was screened for anti-snake venom activity by oral administration of Hibiscus radiatus (10 mg/kg). It exhibited anti- snake venom potential without preventing total death in the experimental animals after 4 days count by its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. The crude extract showed a significant (p<0.05%) antibacterial properties against selected clinical isolates, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli, but the activity of the extract against the fungus, Candidas albicans was not significant (p>0.05). The anti-inflammatory property of the leaves extract was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema among other models in six groups of albino rats for 6 hours. The crude extract reduced paw edema (87.79%) within the dose range of 150-300 mg/kg) comparable with the standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg, 93.89%). The results obtained therefore suggest that the methanolic extract of Hibiscus radiatus leaves can be considered to be a valuable source of remedy for the treatment of snake bites, bacterial infections associated with wounds at the site of snake bites and inflammations associated with the poisons. The bioactivities of the leaves extract may be attributable to the presence of the phytochemicals and thus confirms the claimed traditional application of the leaves as an anti-snake venom agent.
How to cite this article:
Isaac Enemali Shaibu, Simon Koma Okwute. Phytochemical and anti-snake venom characteristics of the leaves extract of Hibiscus radiatus. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2021;10(1):52-59.