Abstract: Pistia stratiotes
L. commonly known as water cabbage, water lettuce, Nile cabbage, or shellflower. Its leaves are traditionally used against ringworm infection of scalp, boils and syphilitic eruptions. Traditionally, oil extracts is used for treatment of tuberculosis, asthma and dysentery. Eichhornia crassipes
(water hyacinth) is an invasive weed that causes serious issues for rivers, lakes, and other reservoirs around the world, although it can be an excellent source for bioactive compounds such as phytosterols and some steroids found in many plants.
The aim to study the phytochemical screening from Pistia stratiotes L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and analysis of components present in it by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The plant were sequentially extracted in different solvents viz., ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, hexane, aqueous, and 1%HCl. The ethanolic crude extract of weed, Pistia stratiotes L. and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms showed different types of high and low molecular weight compounds by GC-MS analysis. n-Hexadecanoic acid (7.18%), E-11-Hexadecenoic acid, ethyl ester (1.04%), Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (13.29%), L- Glutamine (0.38%), Linolelaidic acid, methyl ester (2.41%), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester,(Z,Z,Z) (2.7%), Palmitic acid (12.09%), Phytol (2.12%), 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester(3.79%), Linolenic acid, ethyl ester (26.26%), Stearic acid, ethyl ester (0.98%), α-Glyceryl linolenate (1.35%), Diisooctyl phthalate (53.84%), Stigmasterol (11.39%), 1-Monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether(1.52%).
Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts exhibit following bioactivities. Anticancer, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Diuretic, Hepatoprotective, Anti-arthritic, Antiasthma, Antioxidant, Hypocholesterolemic, Nematicide, Pesticide, Lubricant, Anti-androgenic, Flavor, Hemolytic, 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor, Insectifuge, Antihistaminic, Anti-eczemic, Anti-acne, Anti-coronary, Antifouling effects so that they can be recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. Therefore ethanol extract of Pistia stratiotes and E. crassipes proves as a potential source of bioactive compounds of pharmacological importance.