K.S. Thakur* , Mahesh K. Vahalia, Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda, Khare Rashmi, Shailesh D. Nadkarni, R.V. Gudi, Shekhar S. Shitut
Ayurveda, literally means "science of life" and it is practised over 5000 years back onwards. In Ayurveda, several compounds of Mercury (Parada) and Sulphur (Gandhaka) are extensively used in Ayurvedic therapeutics for a wide variety of ailments and conditions. Kajjali is one such compound which is the most predominant amongst them. Kajjali, an Indian traditional drug has been used in the treatment of various disorders. In our study, processing and chemical characterization of this drug using various techniques, viz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Particle size analyzer, Thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), and Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) have been reported. In the perspective of safety concerns In vitro bovine shrimp assay and Osmotic fragility test also have been performed. XRD pattern of preparation delineats its cubic and hexagonal form with 2Î¸ position at 23.08, 26.42,27.76 28.80,30.46, 31.25, 43.78, 51.86, and 54.30 with d-spacing of 3.83, 3.37, 3.21, 3.09, 2.93, 2.86, 2.06, 1.76 and 1.68 AÂº respectively. SEM photomicrograph of Samagandhak Kajjali particles shows the appearance of particles of 10 um and less than 5 um size particles i.e. Upto 0.237 um in size. Drug contains Mercury in the Mercury Sulphide (HgS) form with free Sulphur and associated with organic contents, whereas EDAX showed the presence of Hg (49.4 %), S (48.70 %), Zn (12.39 ppm), P (0.67%) and Selenium (0.04 ppm) in the final preparation of Kajjali. There is no significant (p< 0.05) difference in the In vitro toxicity and Osmotic fragility of control group with treated ones. These findings help in understanding the therapeutic value, safety aspect and standardization of Ayurvedic drug- Kajjali. Though the metallic Mercury is known to be toxic to the biological system, no compelling evidence has been put forth to suggest any toxic effects of Kajjali. By observing the results of structural and chemical characterisation of the study, clearly delineats in crystal view manner of its safety concern.
K.S. Thakur* , Mahesh K. Vahalia, Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda, Khare Rashmi, Shailesh D. Nadkarni, R.V. Gudi, Shekhar S. Shitut. Evaluation of Structural, Chemical Characterisation and Safety Studies of Samagandhak Kajjali, an Indian Traditional Ayurvedic Drug. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2014;2(6):57-67.