Fatma S. Elsharabasy, Amina A.M. AL-Mushhin, Sherifa Araffa, Abdel Razik H. Farrag
Salsola plants are widely used in folk medicine. Our previous studies have showed that the ethanol extract of S. inermis, S. volkensii, S. villosa grown in Egyptian desert have antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study deals with the identification of the phytochemical constituents of the extract from the aerial parts of S. tetrandra which grow in Saudi Arabia using GC-MS and GLC analysis. On the other hand, the effect of the alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Salasola terrandra against Aspirin induced gastric ulceration in rats. The aerial parts of Salsola tetrandra (forsskal) were collected from wild plants growing El Doubia at El Riyadh- El Dallamroad. Air-dried and powdered aerial parts of Salsola tetrandra were extracted with petroleum ether, the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure then extracted with 70% alcohol in H2O and the solvent was stripped off under reduced pressure gave 50 g. The petroleum ether extract 10 g was subjected to saponification for subsequent investigation. Identification of compounds was done using different chemical and spectroscopic methods. The 70% alcoholic extract was subjected to examine its antiulcer against Aspirin induced gastric ulceration in rats. Thirty five albino rats were divided into five groups: Group I: Control (untreated) group, Group II: Aspirin group (150 mg/kg), Group III: Salsola group (50 mg/kg), Group IV: Salsola group (100 mg/kg), Group V: Standard drug group (Ranitidine 20 mg/kg). Sections of stomach were prepared for histopathological and histochemical examinations. Phytochemical investigation of the alcoholic extract from the aerial parts of S. tetrandra revealed the presence of Coumarins, Saponins, Alkaloids, Terpenes and Steroids. GC-MS chromatograms of the unsaponifable matter from petroleum ether extract of Salsola tetrandra showed fourteen peaks indicating the presence of fourteen compounds, Ten major phytochemical constituents were identified and are represented as Tridecanamine (1), 2,7-Dimethyl-1-octanol (2); Isohexyl-2-pentylester (3); 3,9-Diethyl-6-tridecanol (4); Methyl palmitate (5);9-octadecynoic acid (6); Hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (7); 9,12-octadecadienoic (Z,Z), methyl ester (8); 2,3-Dihydroxypropyl octadecanoate (9), Tetradecanoic acid, methyl ester. GLC of total fatty acids revealed the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acids was 56.84% (polyunsaturated fatty acids was 48.59% and monounsaturated was 8.25%), while saturated fatty acids percentage was 43.16%. Histopathological and histochemical results indicated that ulcer index showed a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the Salsola treated rats, whereas, there was increase in gastric mucus and reduction of the erosion of the mucosa. These changes were dose dependant. The reverse was seen in Aspirin group. The study showed that Salsola tetrandra extract has an ulcer protective effect similar to that of Ranitidine.
Fatma S. Elsharabasy, Amina A.M. AL-Mushhin, Sherifa Araffa, Abdel Razik H. Farrag. Phytochemical screening and gastroprotective effect of the aerial parts of Salasola terrandra Forssk. Against aspirin induced gastric ulceration in rats. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015;3(6):221-232.