Brassica is a genre of plants belonging to family Brassicaceae commonly used as vegetables and oilseed. The members of Brassicaceae are devoured by natives throughout the world. They comprise important food crops in Europe, Japan, China and India and thus symbolize a vital portion of human regimen worldwide. Brassica vegetables frequently exploited for food include broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and certain seeds. They are important source of bioactive compounds and nutrients like Vitamin E and C, soluble fiber, enzymes owing antioxidant activity for example peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and carotenoids which have persuasive antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer activity. Brassica vegetables have positive impacts on human vigour which are somewhat accredited to their composite blend of phytochemicals possessing antioxidant activity that fights against free radicals by acting on complementary and transformed levels. They basically lead to the stimulation of detoxification enzymes, induce immune system, preclude oxidative stress, diminution of threat of cancers, obstruction of carcinogenic mutations and malignant transformation besides lessening explosion of cancerous cells. These vegetables are also a major source of valuable metabolites, which embrace anthocyanins, terpenes, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, sulforaphane, selenium, coumarins and glucosinolates. Glucosinolates breakdown into diverse metabolic products which act as modulators to protect against DNA damage. They may abolish or nullify innumerable mutagenic and carcinogenic factors through consequently inhibiting DNA methylation which mainly occurs via the initiation of enzymatic systems I and II phase of xenobiotics metabolism. Genetic makeup, environmental impact, cultivation strategy, biochemistry of plants and type of processing and storage, fundamentally outline the concentration and bioavailability of these constituents. Therefore, we can say that the consumption of vegetables including Brassica species is strongly connected with the prevention against threat of numerous types of chronic diseases like Alzheimerâ€™s disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, age-related efficient waning and cataracts etc. and thus plays a crucial function in maintaining healthy human life.