Fatiany Pierre Ruphin, Robijaona Baholy, Soavina Sylver, Randrianirina Aubin Yves Oscar, Abdallah Mahamoud, Fienena Francois Raymond, Solofoniaina Marcelin, Haritiana Jeannelle Rakotoniriana, Raharisololalao AmÃ©lie and Koto â€“te- Nyiwa Ngbolua
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Croton greveanus, Croton borarium and Croton geayi. An ethno-botanical survey was conducted in the south of Madagascar from January to February 2010. Essential oils were extracted from the leaves of selected plants species by hydro-distillation. Antimicrobial activities were assessed using agar disc diffusion and micro-dilution broth methods with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as model. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were determined by Gas chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil from Croton greveanus exhibited great number of components (90) followed by Croton geayi (64) and Croton borarium (63). The essential oil of Croton greveana was rich in terpenic hydrocarbon compared to that of Croton geayi. The major compounds were Î²-pinene (28.73%) and limonene (25.65%). While the essential oil of Croton borarium was found to be rich in Î²-phillandrein (33.79%), Î±-terpineol (25.12%) and camphene (13.74%). The antimicrobial activity of each essential oil against seven bacteria strains was evaluated using disc and micro-dilution methods respectively. The essential oils from the leaves of Croton genus originated from Madagascar showed bactericidal activity (MBC/MIC â‰¤ 4) against most of the tested bacteria.The ability of essential oils in this study to display antibacterial activity may represent a rational explanation for the use of these aromatic and medicinal plants species against pathogenic microorganisms by Malagasy traditional healers. Further studies are, therefore, necessary to evaluate better the selectivity index before developing these essential oils as novel antimicrobial agents.
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