Houtt) is the most important species for spice and nutmeg oil in international trade. The raw materials in nutmeg oil production consist of mace, young seed, medium seed, and old seed. The nutmeg seed was classified according to the harvesting age. The physical properties of nutmeg mace and seeds were determined at different moisture content of samples. The mean length and width of seeds were (1.45, 1.56, and 2.34 cm) and (1.02, 1.77, and 2.02 cm), respectively. The mean weight of seeds were 0.77, 1.67, and 2.71 gram. The percentages of oil yield were 19.51, 8.91, 6.35, and 5.04, respectively. The mean of specific gravity, refractive index and optical rotation of oils were (0.919, 0.902, 0.923, and 0.930), (1.487, 1.481, 1, 486, and 1.487), and (+6.07o, +7.51o, +6.61o, and +6.58o), respectively. Analysis of volatile components in the nutmeg oil used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 40 compounds have been identified by GC-MS. The main constituents of various nutmeg oils were alpha pinene, sabinene, beta pinene, 3-carene, limonene, gamma terpinene, 4-terpineol, safrole, myristicin, eugenol, methyl eugenol, isoeugenol, and elimicine. The physicochemical properties of young nutmeg seed oil is the closest to European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and flavor and fragrance industry quality standard.
Mimbar Ari Saputro, Nuri Andarwulan and Didah Nur Faridah. Physical characterization and essential oil properties of West Sumatra mace and nutmeg seed (Myristica fragrans Houtt) at different ages at harvest. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2016;5(6):371-376.