Thirty two F6 progenies with along with 4 released varieties as parents were evaluated in R.B.D for yield and its component traits grown in rabi
season showed a wide range of variation in all the 10 morphometric traits including yield. The genotypic source of variations were highly significant (at 1% level) for all the traits. The P.C.V. and G.C.V. estimates were high for haulm yield per plant and low for harvest index and shelling percent. The rest of the characters exhibited medium PCV and GCV. However, low values of G.C.V. were observed in shelling percentage and harvest index indicated that they are controlled largely by non-additive gene action and selection would be less effective, so there is need to create variability either by hybridization or mutation followed by selection. High heritability and high genetic advance indicated that these traits are mainly governed by additive gene action. Hence, improvement of these traits would be more effective through the phenotypic selection. Moderate heritability and genetic advance (GAM) as percent of mean for plant height, pod number per plant, kernel number per plant, kernel yield and pod yield indicated the additive and non additive gene actions for these traits and phenotypic selection would be effective to some extent. Kernel yield per plant had the highest direct positive effects on pod yield per plant followed by number of kernels per plant and 100 kernel weight. All other characters through these three characters made major indirect contribution towards pod yield. Plant height, number of branches per plant and number of pods per plant exhibited greater influence on pod yield per plant via kernel number per plant and kernel yield per plant. Haulm yield and harvest index influenced indirectly on pod yield through kernel weight and kernel number respectively. Present study thus indicated that kernel yield per plant, number of kernels per plant, hundred kernel weight followed by plant height and number of branches per plant were identified as the most important yield components and due emphasis should be placed on these characters while selecting for high yielding genotypes in Spanish bunch groundnut.
But OGZ5 and OGZ6 recorded highest pod and kernel yield per plant with haulm yield although exhibited moderate chlorophyll and protein values is due to the balance in the physiological parameters contributing towards yield. Chlorophyll, protein and yield were not related in the same magnitude and direction in all the crosses. OGZ5 & OGZ6 may be identified as promising line for high protein content (25%) and (31%) with moderate chlorophyll and higher yield.
Out of 36 genotypes evaluated the genotypes like OGZ5, OGZ2, R 2001-3A, OGZ6 and OGX4 were sorted out to be promising in respect of high yield. The higher productivity in these promising lines is due to a combination of various morpho- physiological traits and which could be ascribed as the basis of potential productivity in groundnut. High yield of different promising entries could be attributed to taller plant height, moderate to high number of branches /plant and number of pods per plant and moderately high 100 kernel weight, may serve as the basis of yield vigour which could be utilized as important selection criteria for prediction and realization of high yield in groundnut.
Sushree Sibanee Sardar, Kedareswar Pradhan and Bibhu Santosh Behera. Variation, correlation and path-coefficient study in groundnut breeding lines of Odisha. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2017;6(5):1966-1973.