Plant as drug has been used since the period of Neanderthals as well as the time of primitive man across the World. Infectious diseases are among the
most causes of death particularly in poorly hygienic areas in most developing countries like Nigeria. Two plant species of different families were used in this study to compare the choice as well as their usage against some infectious in Northern Nigeria. The leaf sample of Clerondendrum capitatum
and Ficus glumosa
were separately collected from
Demsa Local Government Area, and Nkafimiya village, Michika Local Government Area, Adamawa State, The air-dried powered plant materials of C. capitatum
and F. glumosa
(250 g) each were extracted for 4 hours with 70% ethanol using reflux apparatus; the concentrated extracts were air-dried under reduced pressure and temperature and then subjected to phytochemical evaluation and subsequent antimicrobial activities using hole-in-plate disc diffusion technique was ascertained on some pathogenic organisms, three of which were Gram positive, three Gram negative and a fungal species. The susceptibility data at the highest dose (80 mg/hole) revealed that Clerodendrum capitatum
was highly effective on Candida albicans
with the value of 20.33Â±0.58 mm while it was least active on Staphylococcus aureus
More so, Ficus glumosa
showed same inhibition zone of 20.33Â±0.58 mm against Streptococcus pyogenes
while least activity of 7.67Â±0.58was recorded against E. coli.
The ethanolic leaf extracts of both extracts revealed the presence of cardenolides, tannins, flavonoid, saponins and cardiac glycoside. Terpenoids was only detected in F. glumosa
. However, both extracts were devoid of alkaloids and anthraquinones. Therefore, the high activity posed by C. capitatum
against most organisms studied compared to F. glumosa
may possibly be due to high concentrations of these secondary metabolites in the former and hence suggestive for its choice in the treatment of the aforementioned microorganisms.
Hamidu Usman, Vivian Iliya, Helen Emmanuel Suyi and Halima Abdulsalam Umar. Comparative Phytochemistry and In Vitro Antimicrobial Effectiveness of the Leaf Extracts of Clerodendrum capitatum (Verbenaceae) and Ficus glumosa (Moraceae). J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2017;6(6):945-948.