Mango, a fruit native to India, is one of the most important fruit crops world-wide. The mango is a vascular, seed and flowering plant. It bears the botanical name as - Mangifera indica
L.. It is economically the most important fruit crop in the Anacardiaceae (Cashew or poison ivy) Family. It is ironic that two of the most delectable nuts (cashew, pistachio) and one (mango) of the world’s major fruit crops come from this family. The Genus of the mango is Mangifera which is divided into 5 lower divisions (Species) including the Species of the mango - Mangifera indica
The mango tree has evergreen arbors with10-40 m height with a crown of radius 10 m; grayish-brown bark, brown branchlets, crowded leaves. The seedling tree is long-lived with some specimens known to be over 300 years old and still fruiting; grafted tree lives only 80 years or less. The mango bark is usually dark grey-brown to black, rather smooth, superficially cracked or fissured inconspicuously, peeling off in irregular, rather thick pieces. The twigs are medium thick, smooth, apically angular, glabrous, glossy and dark green. The leaves are simple, alternately arranged, 15-45 cm in length and breadth 5-15 cm, with petiole of length 1-12 cm. The upper surface is shining dark green and the lower is glabrous light green. The emerging leaves on new growth flushes are bronze-red initially, and appear wilted. The leaves strongly smell like turpentine and contain a high content of mangiferin. The mango tree has a taproot 6- 8 m and more long with a dense mass of superficial feeder roots which develop at the base of the trunk or slightly deeper and form anchor roots.
The mango panicle, born at shoot terminals, is branched with 6–40 cm length, possessing a large number (500- 6,000) of small (4 mm) greenish white or pinkish flowers. The flowers are radially symmetrical and have 5 petals 5–10 mm long, with a mild, sweet fragrance. The flower has a conspicuous 5-lobed disc between the petals and stamens. The mango fruit is a kidney-shaped juicy drupe with size 5-25 cm in length and a few gm to 1.8-2.26 kg in weight. The immature fruit has green peel that gradually turns yellow, orange, purple, red, or combinations of these colors as the fruit matures. The flesh of the mango is peach-like and juicy, with more or less numerous fibers radiating from the seed husk. The seed is large, flattened, kidney-shaped central stone constituting ~ 20% of the fruit weight. Seeds are either mono-embryonic or polyembryonic. The most characteristic feature of the mango fruit is the formation of a small conical projection developing laterally at the proximal end of the fruit, known as the beak. The fruit takes 4-5 months from flowering to ripen.