Idris Aliyu Kankara, Ibrahim Abdullahi and Gayus Aminu Paulina
Ethnomedicinal plant extracts and their isolates have demonstrated significant inhibitory effect against various snake venom PLA2s enzymes activities and therefore can be used as an alternative against snake envenomation. Different phytochemicals capable of inhibiting PLA2s from different snake venoms have been isolated, these include Ikshusterol-3-O-glucoside, Betulin and Betulinic acid, Ar tumerone, 12-methoxy-4-methylvoachalotine, aristolochic acid, luteolin, kaempferol, isoquercitin, rutin, ellagic acid, gallic acid quinic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propylgallate, epigallocatechin gallate, 4-nerolidylcatechol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, 7-methoxy-coumarin, 6,7- methylenedioxy-coumarin, umbelliferone and tannic acid. These phytochemicals might provide a cheaper and new strategy for the development of new pharmaceutical drugs and alternative approaches for the treatment of snake envenomation. This review, presents a compilation of important phytochemicals that are effective against snake venom PLA2s activity due to their neutralization effect.
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