Chandrabhan Bharti, Anita Mohapatra, Rakesh Maurya, Chandan Maharana, Alok Maurya and Pranab Malakar
Nitrate formed by biochemical activities of microorganisms or addition of chemically synthesized forms in the lithosphere and biosphere that enters hydrosphere with relative ease, as all these environmental components are dynamically interconnected. Balancing the amount of N needed for optimum plant growth while minimizing the NO3
- that is transported to ground and surface waters remains a major challenge for everyone attempting to understand and improve agricultural nutrient use efficiency. Strategies for reducing NO3
- loss through drainage include improved timing of N application at appropriate rates, using soil tests and plant monitoring, diversifying crop rotations, using cover crops, reducing tillage, optimizing N application techniques, and using nitrification inhibitors. Maximum permissible limits of nitrate concentration in water prescribed by ICMR is 10 as NO3
-N (mg/l) and 45 as NO3
- (mg/l). The production of food grains has increased by 2% in the last 5 years as against an 8.6% rise in population. There are many sources of nitrate accumulation in water and hence food, viz
., over-fertilization of crops, intensive agricultural rotation cycles and increased urbanization. Encourage the use of biofertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers. It is suggested to Shift into organic agriculture for the management of pest and disease.
Chandrabhan Bharti, Anita Mohapatra, Rakesh Maurya, Chandan Maharana, Alok Maurya and Pranab Malakar. Nitrate pollution with modernization of Indian agriculture. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2020;9(3):2073-2080.