Osagie Mary Aishat, Orobator Nicholas Owamagbe, Orobator Stephanie Ehimwenma and Azeke Arebojie Marshall
Poor diet has been associated with several chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes. Bread is widely consumed even though they are high in carbohydrates and low in essential nutrients. This study evaluated the nutritional, phytochemical and antioxidant properties of bread supplemented with Moringa oleifera
Bread samples were prepared by supplementing wheat flour with moringa leaf powder at the levels of 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 10.0 and 15.0% and their nutritional components and in vitro
antioxidant properties were determined using standard protocols. Results of nutritional quality showed that M10 (10% moringa: 90% flour) bread had enhanced levels of ash (1.84 to 2.47%), protein (8.05 to 14.66%), fat (10.32 to 13.05%) and fiber (0.65 to 1.31%) with reduced moisture (12.09 to 11.45%) and carbohydrate (67.05 to 57.06%) contents, respectively. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties also showed that M10 bread had the highest total phenol (0.5 to 1.24 mg GAE/g extract), flavonoid (1.55 to 9.01 mg QE/g extract), alkaloid (5.39 to 13.48 mg QE/g extract), reducing power potential (0.29 to 3.18 mg AAE/g extract) and DPPH radical scavenging ability (45.13 to 77.65%). While total tannins (0.29 to 0.56 mg TAE/g extract), total saponins (2.27 to 4.52 mg QE/g extract) and FRAP (1.16 to 1.66 mg AAE/g extract) activities were significantly (p< 0.05
) high in the M7 (7% moringa: 93% flour) bread. The result of this study indicates that supplementation of bread with Moringa oleifera
leaf powder improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread and can therefore be incorporated as functional food for the control of NCDs and improvement of health status.