Ugwuzor Jessica Chinwe, Adekunle A Adedotun, Suleiman Y Mudi, Haruna Musa, Aina Olanrewaju Oluwagbemiga and Adewale Babatunde
It is estimated that about 97% of Nigeria population are at menace of malaria infection, with Kano state having the highest prevalence of infection at the moment. Yet, substantial number of the infected populace used folk treatment as substitute for the orthodox medicine. The present study investigated in-vivo antimalaria activities and phytochemical constituent of the back extracts of Boswillia dalzielii, Diospyros mespiliformis and Ficus sycomorus which are the three most common plants used in Kano for folklore treatment of malaria infection. Fifty-five (55) pure strains of Adult Swiss albino mice inoculated with chloroquine resistant NK65 lineage of Plasmodium berghei were used to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the back extract of the three selected plants. The infected animals were randomized into 11 groups of 5 animals. Nine groups were treated with methanol extract of the three plant species at concentration 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight. The remaining two groups were treated with either water (Negative control) or chloroquine (positive control). The result revealed that though all the plant investigated possess antimalaria properties, their chemotherapeutic activity against malaria infection is dose dependent. At the dose of 800 mg/kg, back extract of F. sycomorus and D. mespiliformis had higher antimalaria activities with suppression percentage of 65.79 and 53.25, respectively. The presence or absence of secondary metabolites varies among the plants and depends on the type of solvent used for extraction. Alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, triterpenoids and phenols were present in all the three species, but mostly in different extracting solvent. The results pointed to better potency of D. mespiliformis and F. sycomorus in treating malaria infection compared to B. dalzielii and can be a good source for the industrial manufacturing of antimalarial drugs.
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