Shan Sasidharan, Srinivasakumar KP, Amiya Bhaumik, Sreemoy Kanti Das and Hareendran Nair J
Caesalpinia bonduc (L) Roxb is a vital remedy for treating several ailments in Indian traditional systems of medicine. This perennial medicinal plant grows as a hedge plant up to 15 m tall and is found worldwide, particularly in Sri Lanka, India, Burma, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In the current study, we attempted to assess the botanical and pharmacognostic properties of C. bonduc with special reference to the seeds. The pharmacognostic study of the anatomical section of the seeds as well as microscopic studies of the powder was conducted to determine their morphological and anatomical features. The qualitative and quantitative microscopy as well as physiochemical properties and TLC profile of the seed sample were carried out as per standard procedures recommended by WHO. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations revealed the characteristic features of C. bonduc. The transverse section also revealed the characteristic features of the C. bonduc seed, including the cotyledon, epidermis, osteosclereids, parenchyma cells, sclereids, starch grains, sub-epidermis; and testa. A quantitative pharmacognostic analysis of the powder of the seed revealed a moisture content of 6.61%. Physiochemical investigation of the seed recorded total ash, water-soluble ash and acid insoluble ash as 3.26, 1.69 and 0.39 %w/w, respectively. The highest extractive value was recorded for ethanol, followed by hexane. The residence of toxic heavy metals was conducted using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and was found to be within the permitted limit, proving the safety profile of the seed material tested. The TLC profile of the raw seed extract recorded various spots in visible, short UV and long UV lights, which gives a clear idea of the abundance of various phytochemicals. Diverse pharmacognostic features recorded in this study will surely help to identify and standardize C. bonduc in quality control and drug formulation in the future.
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