Oluwadunni Joan Okwulu, Matthew Oluwole Abatan and Adeolu Alex Adedapo
Aim: The protective and regenerative properties of Harungana madagascariensis were evaluated in Albino rats because the plant possess medicinal properties and has been used in folkloric for the treatment of several diseases. The effects of the Methanol extract of this plant in combination with Ascorbic acid, Selenium and Allopurinol were evaluated on the liver and kidney because the plant is known to possess phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals that has anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging activities.
Methods: Albino rats (Wistar) were used in this study and were grouped into 21 of five animals per group for both protective and regenerative studies. Acetaminophen at 800mg/kg dose was used to induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity while different doses of methanol extract in combination with three antioxidants (Ascorbic acid 200mg/kg, Selenium 1mg/kg and Allopurinol 50mg/kg) were used to ameliorate these effects in a 9-day study. Serum Biochemical assays and histopathology were evaluated in the study.
Results: The results from this study showed that Acetaminophen induced-stress on the liver and kidney caused increased in all the liver biomarkers such as the Aspartate transaminase (ALT), Alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphate, creatinine, blood urea, total protein and gamma-glutamyl transferase while the combination of the stem bark extract of H. madagascariensis along with ascorbic acid, selenium and allopurinol at different doses caused protective and regenerative effects on the biomarkers and reduced the increased levels of the liver enzymes seen in acetaminophen group. In the acetaminophen group, the histopathology of the liver showed moderate portal congestion with mild periportal cellular infiltration and a moderate to severe portal fibrosis, while the kidney shows severe diffuse tubular degeneration and necrosis. The combination of MHM (500mg/kg) with these antioxidants caused remarkable reversal of the histopathological changes caused by acetaminophen in both organs.
Conclusion: The synergy between MHM and the antioxidants especially Ascorbic acid and Selenium may have increase the efficacy of the plant extract, as it may both protect and treat both organs at lower dose of 200mg/kg and 100mg/kg when combine with this two antioxidants in the case of liver or kidney damage induced by acetaminophen as indicated in this work.
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