Hama Hamadou Habibou, Mahamane Idi Issa Abdoulahi, Chaibou Moctar, Chaibou Ousmane Zakari, Hama Garba Rahila and Ikhiri Khalid
Among the many plants that have yet to be studied and that populate the rich African flora, an invaluable reservoir of bioactive molecules, is Detarium microcarpum, a tree of the Fabaceae family 8 to 12 m high, a species of the wooded savannahs and open forests of the Sudano-Sahelian zone of the African continent. This plant has long been used in traditional medicine to treat stomach aches, menstrual pain, dysenteric diarrhoea, dermatitis, meningitis, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, tuberculosis, smallpox, bilharzia, itching, gastric ulcers and diabetes. Phytochemical work on this plant reported about 40 secondary metabolites isolated mainly from extracts of trunk bark, leaves and fruits. The isolated compounds included carbohydrates, coumarins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids and other compounds. The crude extracts of the different organs and the compounds isolated from them showed a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including antiviral, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, anthelmintic, larvicidal and molluscicidal activities. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the existing knowledge on the different organs of Detarium microcarpum.
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