Gerald W Ugodi, Ekuma Chimaobi Anselem and IKpechukwu Martins Detu
Phyllanthus discoideus (Phyllanthaceae) is a tropical tree commonly called Atara in Ebonyi state Nigeria. Its bark is used in indigenous medicine for the treatment of toothache, post-partum pain, leg ulcer, epilepsy and infection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical constituents and carry out in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol crude extract and solvent fractions of stem bark of P. discoideus. The stem bark of P. discoides was collected, identified, prepared and processed into powdered form. Cold maceration extraction method was done using methanol, subsequently, the crude extract was fractionated using solvent-solvent method; n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were used successively in order of polarity. Phytochemical screening was carried out both on the crude extract and the fractions. Egg albumen and carrageenan methods were used for anti-inflammatory studies using diclofenac as positive control in both methods. From the result, Alkaloid, flavonoids, tannin, saponin, phenolic compound, steroid and carbohydrate were found present. N-butanol has highest anti-inflammatory activity with percentage inhibition of 42.7% and 74.24% at the doses of 300 mg and 600 mg respectively. Other fractions also have relatively good activity compared to the positive control (diclofenac). Therefore, P. discoideus stem bark showed a good anti-inflammatory activity which can further be characterized and isolated for management of inflammatory disorders.
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