Abstract:Napoleonaea imperialis P. Beauv. (Family Lecythidaceae) is a medicinal plant predominantly found in South-Eastern Nigeria. Essential oil (1.92 g, 0.4%) was extracted from the rind of N. imperialis via hydro distillation using a Clevenger-apparatus. Thirteen compounds constituting 99.96% of the overall components were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Monoterpenoids (geranial, neral and citronellol) made up 53.46% of the total constituents. (Z,Z)-3-hexenyl-3-hexenoate (10.56%) and (Z)-9, 17-octadecadienal (7.75%) were also identified as major constituents of the essential oil. The methanol crude extract of the rind was partitioned with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol to yield n-hexane fraction (7.4%), dichloromethane fraction (23.7%) and methanol fraction (68.7%). GC-MS analysis of the dichloromethane fraction showed the presence of thirty-five compounds constituting 98.0% of the total constituents with oleic acid having the highest percentage (28.04%). n-Hexadecanoic acid was identified in both essential oil and dichloromethane fraction of the rind. Fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acids and glycosides were also present in the dichloromethane fraction of the rind. Phytochemical screening of compounds in the three fractions were carried out using thin layer chromatography with different spray reagents. Anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid spray reagent produced purple, violet and grey spots confirming the presence of terpenoid, saponins and steroids respectively in the fractions. Ferric chloride spray reagent showed green spot indicating the presence of tannins in n-hexane extract while sulphuric acid-methanol spray reagent revealed five spots in n-hexane fraction, four spots in dichloromethane fraction and three spots in methanol fraction.
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