Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Vol. 7, Special Issue 1 (2018)
Goat husbandry under changing climate scenario in Banka district, Bihar
Dharmendra Kumar, Rajesh Kumar and Kumari Sharda
Goat farming was a very popular among rural farmers particularly in landless and marginal farmers at Banka district of Bihar. It was observed that in almost all household farmers keep at least 2 to 5 goats in their houses. Considering the above fact a study was undertaken to find out the pattern of goat husbandry practices in climate change scenario in Banka district, Bihar. In total 100 farmers were interrogated through pre-module questionnaire. The responses were statistically analysed as per standard procedure. During the one year study period at Banka district the data were recorded on impact of climate change in goat husbandry practices especially in breed composition, goat population, feed and fodder availability, area of grazing land, disease incidences, reproductive disorders, productive performances, consumer demand etc. The analysis of data revealed that in Banka district the area of grazing land was declined significantly (P<0.01) by average 51 percent during last 3 decades. With declining and erratic distribution of rain fodder production declined in quality and quantity. Age at first conception and calving in goats increased by 2.0 and 2.5 months, respectively. Average kid production per goat decreased in number i. e. Kids delivered in one time decreased. Last age of kidding reduced to 4.5 years. The kidâ€™s mortality increased by 24.35 % due to poor milk yield but adult mortality decreased by 18%. Growth performances like total body weight gain in Scheduled tribe villages reduced by 15%, Whereas, in other villages similar growth rate (67.31 and 66.73g/day) was found. Stress on animals, extreme weather conditions and change in weather in short interval, erratic rain leads to increase of incidences and emergence of PPR, haemorrhagic septicemia enterotoxemia, contagious ecthyma etc diseases. Cold stress causes increase the pneumonia and diarrhea like diseases. Poor availability of green grass, other than monsoon season increases the incidence of metabolic disease, corneal opacity and night blindness. The increased morbidity and mortality and declined production under climate change leads to economic losses to the farmers. The availability of safe drinking water was declining rapidly. However farmers provide fresh water at home or in field at noon and evening. Scarcity of feed and fodder from grazing farmers resort to early disposal of goat for mutton purposes. Less number of farmers was interested in rearing of castrated male goat. Rich farmers sold their goats at 8.5 month of age weighing 15 kg body weight where as poor farmers sold at an age of 4.5 months when they hardly attain body weight of 5.5 kg due to scarcity of feed and fodder. Climate change causes extreme weather and erratic rain condition affecting the feed and fodder availability and emergence of diseases. These affect the productivity of goat and causes economic losses of framers.
Pages: 2329-2333 | 1376 Views 371 Downloads
Dharmendra Kumar, Rajesh Kumar and Kumari Sharda. Goat husbandry under changing climate scenario in Banka district, Bihar. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2018;7(1S):2329-2333.