Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry
Vol. 7, Special Issue 1 (2018)
Screening and Identification of Moisture stress Tolerant Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids for Rainfed Agriculture in Jharkhand
Maize (Zea mays
L.) being a C4
plant can capture energy efficiently and capable of producing maximum food grains per unit area as compared to other cereals. Globally, it is a leading cereal in terms of area cultivated nearly 150mh and contributed about 782 mt with an average productivity of 4080kg/ha. However, being an efficient moisture user it requires 500-800 mm of water during life cycle of 80-110days (Critchley &Klaus, 1991). In India maize is mainly grown as kharif crop which accounts for about 85% of the total area but contribute comparatively much lower than rabi maize. Rabi maize contributes >25% of annual production with <10% of total maize growing area. The crop grown in kharif season faces uneven erratic distribution of rainfall and in rabi unavailability of water at proper stage of crop growth. Both the season faces a common problem of moisture stress. At the genetic level, moisture stress has been considered to be quantitative traits which influence on maximal plant yield and productivity. The knowledge of nature and magnitude of genetic component of variation for grain yield and its related morpho- physiological traits is essential. Keeping in view the changing scenario of water availability and erratic rainfall, present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the maize hybrids for their suitability under rainfed kharif cultivation in Jharkhand. Sixteen hybrids and two composite varieties were sown in RBD with 3 replications on 3rd
July, 2017. Recommended package of practices were followed during crop growth. Observations were recorded on days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant height (cm), ear eight (cm), days to maturity, shelling% and grain yield/plot (kg). Statistical analysis for genetic component of variation and performance of individual hybrids were done following standard methods. During the month of July, 2017 just after sowing the crop received a total amount of 847.6mm rainfall which is 137.4% excess than the normal average rainfall(357mm) and followed by 331.6 mm rainfall in the month of August,2017. This provides an opportunity for screening of hybrids for excess moisture stress under field condition. Continuous heavy rain effects the initial establishment of crop and ultimately poor crop growth. Among the traits under study, plant height and shelling per cent was highly effected and resulted poor grain yield. Four hybrids BAUMH2017-15 (BAUIM2X HKI1532), BAUMH2017-14 (BAUIM5XHKI1532), SIRI4527 and Kavery Profit recorded significantly higher yield and can be recommended for kharif cultivation under erratic rainfall.
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Manigopa Chakraborty. Screening and Identification of Moisture stress Tolerant Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids for Rainfed Agriculture in Jharkhand. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2018;7(1S):2678-2681.